Abg syringes usually come prepacked and are heparinised. A a po 2 may also represent the presence of an intrapulmonary shunt ie a lung that is perfused but not ventilated for example pneumonia.
Below are a few examples to demonstrate how important context is when interpreting an abg.
Pneumonia abg examples. This is probably secondary to the dyspnoea from decreased pulmonary compliance due to the pneumonia. You are called to see a 54 year old lady on the ward. Hamid qazi md bsc alejandro lemor m d.
A respiratory alkalosis is present. Type 2 type 2 respiratory failure involves hypoxia pao2 8 kpa with hypercapnia paco2 6 0 kpa. A normal pao 2 in a patient on high flow oxygen.
If the plasma k were to drop further there is a risk of generalised muscle weakness. Laboratory findings such as leukocytosis are helpful for the diagnosis of bacterial pneumonia or to assess the status of the patient. The following table provides a list of some of the causes in which a a po 2 change.
Try to interpret each abg and formulate a differential diagnosis before looking at the answer. Interpreting an arterial blood gas abg is a crucial skill for physicians nurses respiratory. Abg examples abg exam questions for medical students osces and mrcp paces below are some brief clinical scenarios with abg results.
Interpretation of arterial blood gases abgs david a. Michael gibson m s m d associate editor s in chief. Kaufman md chief section of pulmonary critical care sleep medicine bridgeport hospital yale new haven health assistant clinical professor yale university school of medicine section of pulmonary critical care medicine introduction.
This is abnormal as you would expect the patient to have a pao 2 well above the normal range with this level of oxygen therapy. Sputum samples need to be collected from every patient and gram staining and culture need to be performed to determine the exact. Examples of causes of type 1 respiratory failure are pulmonary embolus reduced perfusion pulmonary fibrosis pneumonia asthma copd and pulmonary oedema reduced ventilation these may all further develop into type 2 respiratory failure.
The following are examples of clinical situations and the abgs that may result as well as causes and solutions for abg abnormalities. Puffer is a 35 year old single mother just getting off the night shift. She reports to the ed in the early morning with shortness of breath.
This can result in respiratory muscle failure and development of a respiratory acidosis.